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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

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如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:lv27662000.cn 点击:


如何既经济又合理地选择到适合本企业的卧式加工中心十分重要。可以说,正确选型是用好卧式加工中心的基础,是使卧式加工中心发挥出最大效率和效益的关键。卧式加工中心一次性投资大、技术复杂,同时种类、规格繁多,其价格、功能和精度又是一个对立的统一体,用户在选购时往往有不少疑问。

卧式加工中心

1我应该(gai)使用(yong)卧式加工(gong)中心吗?——加工(gong)工(gong)件特征

加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)类(lei)型的(de)选(xuan)(xuan)定需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)考虑加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)对(dui)象(xiang)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)范(fan)围和(he)设(she)(she)备价格等因(yin)素,根据(ju)所选(xuan)(xuan)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件(jian)(jian)族 (组)进(jin)行。如(ru)果您的(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)具有(you)以(yi)下特征(zheng),则应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin):加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)两面(mian)(mian)以(yi)上的(de)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件(jian)(jian)或加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)在(zai)四周(zhou)呈径(jing)向(xiang)辐(fu)射状排列的(de)孔系、面(mian)(mian),如(ru)箱体类(lei)、壳(qiao)体类(lei)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件(jian)(jian)等,应(ying)选(xuan)(xuan)择卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)零(ling)(ling)(ling)件(jian)(jian)的(de)位(wei)置精度(du)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求较高,宜选(xuan)(xuan)用高精密卧式(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin);零(ling)(ling)(ling)件(jian)(jian)在(zai)一(yi)次装夹中(zhong)需(xu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)完成多面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)时(shi),可(ke)选(xuan)(xuan)择立(li)卧复合式(shi)五面(mian)(mian)加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)。当然,上述(shu)各点(dian)也(ye)不是绝对(dui)的(de),一(yi)方面(mian)(mian)是由于加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)正朝着复合化方向(xiang)发展,另一(yi)方面(mian)(mian)选(xuan)(xuan)型时(shi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)综合考虑生(sheng)产效率、加(jia)(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)艺(yi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求和(he)设(she)(she)备资金等因(yin)素,要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)以(yi)性价比(bi)来衡量选(xuan)(xuan)型方案的(de)合理性。

建(jian)议(yi):采购用户需要根据加工对象、加工工艺、加工范(fan)围等特征来确定是否使(shi)用卧式加工中(zhong)心以及使(shi)用什么样的卧式加工中(zhong)心。

2我需要选用什么规格的卧式加工中心?——主要规格的选定

(1)工(gong)作(zuo)台尺寸

这是(shi)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)主参数,主要取决于典(dian)型零件的(de)外廓尺(chi)寸、装夹方式(shi)等(deng)。应选择比典(dian)型零件外廓尺(chi)寸稍(shao)大一些(xie)的(de)工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台,以便留(liu)出(chu)安装夹具所需的(de)空间,保证零件在其上(shang)面能(neng)够顺利(li)装夹,此外还应考虑工(gong)(gong)作(zuo)台的(de)承载能(neng)力、T形槽(cao)数量(liang)和尺(chi)寸等(deng),小尺(chi)寸的(de)比较通用,比如站内的(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心MH-630A、MH-800A、MH-500A、LH-630B等(deng)。

建议:目前(qian)市场上(shang)的(de)卧式加(jia)工中心(xin)工作台尺寸多为1000以下的(de),能够满足大(da)多数用户的(de)需求。

(2)坐标轴行程

最基本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)坐(zuo)(zuo)标轴是X、Y、Z三轴,其行程和工(gong)作(zuo)台尺(chi)寸有(you)(you)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)比例(li)关系,工(gong)作(zuo)台面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大小基本上确定了加(jia)(jia)工(gong)空间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大小。如个别零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)尺(chi)寸大于卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin)行程时,则必须要(yao)求零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)区域处于机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)行程范(fan)围之内,此外还要(yao)考虑(lv)零件(jian)是否与机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)交换刀(dao)具的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)空间干涉、与机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)防护罩等附(fu)件(jian)发生干涉等系列问题(ti)。而对(dui)需要(yao)多(duo)轴联动(dong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin) (如增加(jia)(jia)回转坐(zuo)(zuo)标A、B、C或附(fu)加(jia)(jia)坐(zuo)(zuo)标U、V、W),如四轴、五轴联动(dong)卧(wo)(wo)式加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心(xin),这就需要(yao)特殊订货,同时必须对(dui)相(xiang)应配套的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)编程软件(jian)、测(ce)量手(shou)段(duan)以及(ji)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)价格等有(you)(you)全面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)考虑(lv)和安排。

建议:采购用户需(xu)要(yao)根据加工工件规格选择不同坐(zuo)标轴(zhou)行程的(de)卧式(shi)加工中(zhong)心(xin),多轴(zhou)联动(dong)需(xu)要(yao)特殊定制。

(3)主轴(zhou)电动机(ji)功率与转矩

它(ta)反映(ying)了(le)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)削效率(lv)(lv),也从(cong)一个侧(ce)面反映(ying)了(le)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)的(de)(de)切(qie)削刚(gang)性和(he)机床整体(ti)刚(gang)度。主轴电动(dong)机功(gong)率(lv)(lv)在同类规(gui)格的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)上可(ke)以(yi)有各种不同的(de)(de)配置,同类规(gui)格的(de)(de)主轴转速不同的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin),主轴电动(dong)机功(gong)率(lv)(lv)可(ke)以(yi)相差(cha)很大。

建议:采购用户(hu)应(ying)根据自身典型零件毛(mao)坯余量大小、切削能力 (单位时间金属(shu)切削量)、要求达到的加(jia)工精度(du)、实际能配置的刀(dao)具等因素综合选(xuan)择。

(4)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速与进给速度(du)

需(xu)要高速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)或超低(di)速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)时,应(ying)关注(zhu)主轴(zhou)的转(zhuan)速(su)(su)范围。特别是高速(su)(su)切(qie)(qie)削(xue)时,既(ji)要有高的主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su),同时也要具(ju)备与主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)速(su)(su)相匹(pi)配(pei)的进给速(su)(su)度(du)。目前(qian)卧式加(jia)工中(zhong)心高速(su)(su)化趋势(shi)发展很(hen)快(kuai),主轴(zhou)从(cong)每分钟几千(qian)转(zhuan)到(dao)几万转(zhuan),直线坐标快(kuai)速(su)(su)移动速(su)(su)度(du)从(cong)10—20/min上(shang)(shang)(shang)升到(dao)80m/min以上(shang)(shang)(shang),当然其功能部件如(ru)电主轴(zhou)、直线电动机(ji)、直线滚动导轨、主轴(zhou)轴(zhou)承等(deng)及(ji)相配(pei)套的光栅尺、刀(dao)具(ju)等(deng)附件价格也都(dou)相应(ying)上(shang)(shang)(shang)升,甚至很(hen)昂(ang)贵(gui)。

建议:采购用户必须根据自身的(de)技术能(neng)力和配套能(neng)力合(he)理作出卧(wo)式加工中心的(de)合(he)理选型。

(5)刀库(ku)容量

可(ke)以(yi)根(gen)据被加工(gong)零件的(de)(de)工(gong)艺分析结果来确(que)定所需(xu)数(shu)量,通常以(yi)典型零件在一次装(zhuang)夹中所需(xu)刀(dao)(dao)具数(shu)量来确(que)定刀(dao)(dao)库的(de)(de)容量,卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin)以(yi)选用(yong)40把刀(dao)(dao)左右的(de)(de)刀(dao)(dao)库为宜。同时要关(guan)注最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具直径与长度以(yi)及(ji)最大(da)刀(dao)(dao)具重量等。用(yong)于(yu)FMC或FMS的(de)(de)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心(xin),应选择大(da)容量刀(dao)(dao)库,甚至配置可(ke)交换刀(dao)(dao)库。

建议:普通(tong)卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心选择40把刀左(zuo)右(you)的刀库(ku)即够用(yong),用(yong)于FMC或FMS的卧(wo)式加工中(zhong)心应选择大容量(liang)刀库(ku)。

3我(wo)需要选用什么精(jing)度的卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心(xin)?——精(jing)度的选定

加工中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)等级主要(yao)(yao)根据(ju)典型(xing)零(ling)件(jian)(jian)关键(jian)部(bu)位(wei)(wei)(wei)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)来确定(ding)(ding)(ding)。其精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)主要(yao)(yao)包括定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)、重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)和铣(xian)圆精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),特(te)别是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)重复(fu)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du),它反(fan)映了坐(zuo)标(biao)(biao)轴的(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)(wei)(wei)稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)性,是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)衡(heng)量(liang)该(gai)轴是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)否稳定(ding)(ding)(ding)可(ke)靠工作的(de)(de)(de)基本(ben)指标(biao)(biao)。特(te)别值(zhi)得注意的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi),选型(xing)订货时必须全面分析(xi),不(bu)能简单地看产(chan)品样(yang)本(ben)所列(lie)(lie)的(de)(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度(du)(du)数值(zhi),因为(wei)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)、规定(ding)(ding)(ding)数值(zhi)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)、检(jian)测(ce)方法(fa)不(bu)同(tong)(tong),数值(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)含义(yi)就不(bu)同(tong)(tong)。刊物、样(yang)本(ben)、合(he)格(ge)证(zheng)所列(lie)(lie)出的(de)(de)(de)单位(wei)(wei)(wei)长度(du)(du)上(shang)允许的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)(zheng)负值(zhi)(一(yi)般为(wei)正(zheng)(zheng)负0.05)常常是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)不(bu)明确的(de)(de)(de),订货时要(yao)(yao)特(te)别注意,一(yi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)要(yao)(yao)弄(nong)清是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)IOS(国(guo)(guo)际标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)化组织标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、VDI(德国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、JIS(日本(ben)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))、NMTBA(美(mei)国(guo)(guo)机床(chuang)制造商协(xie)会标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))还是(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)NAS(美(mei)国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))及GB(中(zhong)国(guo)(guo)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun))等,进而分析(xi)各种不(bu)同(tong)(tong)标(biao)(biao)准(zhun)(zhun)所规定(ding)(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)检(jian)测(ce)计算方法(fa)和检(jian)测(ce)环境条(tiao)件(jian)(jian),才(cai)不(bu)会产(chan)生(sheng)误解(jie)。

铣圆精度是综合评(ping)价卧式加(jia)工中心有关数(shu)控轴的伺服跟(gen)随运动特性和数(shu)控系统插(cha)补功(gong)能(neng)的主(zhu)要(yao)指标之(zhi)一。不论典型零件是否有此(ci)需(xu)要(yao),为了将来可(ke)能(neng)的需(xu)要(yao)及更好地控制(zhi)精度,必须(xu)重视这一指标。

要特别注意区别加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度与(yu)机床精(jing)(jing)度两个(ge)(ge)不(bu)同的(de)(de)概(gai)念(nian)。将生(sheng)产(chan)厂家(jia)样本上(shang)或产(chan)品合格证(zheng)上(shang)的(de)(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度当作(zuo)卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度是(shi)(shi)错误(wu)的(de)(de)。样本或合格证(zheng)上(shang)标明(ming)的(de)(de)位置精(jing)(jing)度是(shi)(shi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心本身的(de)(de)精(jing)(jing)度,而加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度是(shi)(shi)包括卧式加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心本身所允(yun)许误(wu)差在内的(de)(de)整(zheng)个(ge)(ge)工(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)(tong)各种(zhong)因(yin)素所产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)误(wu)差总和(he)。整(zheng)个(ge)(ge)工(gong)艺系(xi)统(tong)(tong)误(wu)差产(chan)生(sheng)的(de)(de)原因(yin)是(shi)(shi)很复杂的(de)(de),很难用(yong)线性关系(xi)定量表达。选(xuan)型时,可参考工(gong)序能力系(xi)数Cp的(de)(de)评定方法来(lai)作(zuo)为机床加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)(jing)度的(de)(de)选(xuan)型依据。一般而言,Cp应大(da)于1.33。

站内高精密的几款(kuan)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心:MH-630B、LH-300A、MH-500B、TH500动柱式(shi)卧式(shi)加工(gong)中心性能都不错。

建议:采(cai)购(gou)用户在(zai)挑选(xuan)不(bu)同精度(du)(du)的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心时,需(xu)要考虑:不(bu)同标准对应的(de)单位长度(du)(du)含义;重视铣圆精度(du)(du)指标;区别加(jia)工(gong)精度(du)(du)和机床精度(du)(du)。

4我应该选择哪种数控系统?——数控系统的(de)选定

数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)功(gong)(gong)能分为(wei)基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能与(yu)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能,可以从操作(zuo)方式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、用(yong)(yong)户功(gong)(gong)能、控(kong)(kong)制方式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、驱动形式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、反(fan)馈形式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、接口形式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)、检测(ce)与(yu)测(ce)量、报警与(yu)提示、故障诊断等方面(mian)综合衡(heng)量。基(ji)本功(gong)(gong)能是(shi)必须(xu)提供的,而只有(you)当用(yong)(yong)户选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)了选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)功(gong)(gong)能后(hou),厂家才会(hui)另(ling)行提供并另(ling)行加(jia)价(jia),且定价(jia)一般较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。总(zong)体而言(yan),数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的功(gong)(gong)能一定要(yao)(yao)根(gen)据加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)的性(xing)能需(xu)要(yao)(yao)来选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze),订(ding)购时既要(yao)(yao)把需(xu)要(yao)(yao)的功(gong)(gong)能订(ding)全,不(bu)能遗漏,同(tong)时避(bi)免使用(yong)(yong)率不(bu)高(gao)而造成(cheng)浪(lang)费(fei),还(hai)需(xu)注意各(ge)功(gong)(gong)能之间的关联性(xing)。另(ling)一方面(mian),在可供选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)的数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)中(zhong),如(ru)SIEMENS系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、FANUC系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)、国产华中(zhong)数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)等,性(xing)能高(gao)低差别(bie)很大,价(jia)格亦(yi)相差很大,进(jin)口系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)或国产系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)亦(yi)决(jue)定其价(jia)格的高(gao)低。总(zong)体上来看,法(fa)兰克系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)性(xing)价(jia)比比较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao),国内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)(yong)比例比较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)。站内卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)使用(yong)(yong)法(fa)兰克数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)的也比较(jiao)(jiao)多,比如(ru)MH-800B 、 LH-500B都是(shi)比较(jiao)(jiao)好的选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)择(ze)(ze)。多台卧式(shi)(shi)(shi)(shi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心(xin)选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)型时,应尽可能选(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)(yong)同(tong)一厂家的数(shu)控(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong),这样操作(zuo)、编程、维修都比较(jiao)(jiao)方便。

建议:法兰克数控系统性价比比较高,多台卧式加工中心选型尽量选用同一厂家的数控系统。

5我需(xu)要选(xuan)择几台(tai)卧(wo)式加工(gong)中心能(neng)达到的(de)我的(de)产(chan)量要求?——生产(chan)能(neng)力的(de)估算

选(xuan)型(xing)时(shi),必须要考虑卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)能(neng)达到(dao)(dao)的(de)(de)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)能(neng)力,即要求选(xuan)定的(de)(de)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)在一(yi)年之(zhi)内能(neng)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)几种典型(xing)零(ling)件、加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)出(chu)多少数量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)零(ling)件。要得(de)到(dao)(dao)这些数据(ju)必须对每(mei)一(yi)种确(que)定的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)时(shi)和(he)生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)节拍的(de)(de)估算(suan)。一(yi)般步骤为(wei):首先(xian),根(gen)据(ju)已(yi)选(xuan)定的(de)(de)典型(xing)零(ling)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)分析(xi),初步确(que)定一(yi)条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线,在这条工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)路(lu)线中选(xuan)出(chu)准备在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序;第二,根(gen)据(ju)现(xian)用的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数,估算(suan)出(chu)每(mei)道在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)单个工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间(jian);第三,由每(mei)个单工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序时(shi)间(jian)计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)选(xuan)定零(ling)件在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)上加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)总时(shi)间(jian),进(jin)(jin)而计(ji)算(suan)出(chu)年产(chan)量(liang)(liang)即生(sheng)(sheng)产(chan)能(neng)力。如果(guo)估算(suan)结果(guo)达不到(dao)(dao)目标值,但相(xiang)差不大(da),则可以(yi)通过修改工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺(yi)参数的(de)(de)方法加(jia)(jia)以(yi)调(diao)整;如果(guo)相(xiang)差很大(da),则应考虑增加(jia)(jia)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)台数的(de)(de)配置。

建议(yi):采购用户需要根据(ju)工(gong)件加工(gong)工(gong)时(shi)和生产节(jie)拍的估算(suan),决(jue)定卧式加工(gong)中心配(pei)备(bei)台数。

6卧(wo)式加工中心有(you)好多选配的附(fu)件我应该如何选配?——其他(ta)功能部件及附(fu)件的选定(ding)

(1)坐标轴(zhou)数和(he)联动轴(zhou)数

坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)和(he)联动轴数(shu)均应满(man)足(zu)典型零件加(jia)工(gong)要求。一(yi)(yi)般情况下(xia),同厂家、同规格(ge)、同等精度的(de)卧式加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心,增(zeng)加(jia)一(yi)(yi)个标准坐(zuo)标轴,价格(ge)约增(zeng)加(jia)30%—50%。尽管增(zeng)加(jia)坐(zuo)标轴数(shu)可以强化加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)功(gong)能(neng),是机床(chuang)上档次的(de)标志(zhi)之一(yi)(yi),但最终还是要在工(gong)艺要求和(he)资(zi)金条件下(xia)平衡(heng)决定。

(2)工(gong)作台

卧式加工(gong)中心可配置(zhi)用于分(fen)度的回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)和数控回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai),后者能够实(shi)现任意分(fen)度,作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)B轴与(yu)其他(ta)轴联(lian)动控制。回转(zhuan)工(gong)作(zuo)(zuo)台(tai)配置(zhi)与(yu)否以及如何配置(zhi)必须以实(shi)际需要来确定(ding),以经济(ji)、实(shi)用为(wei)目的。

(3)自动换刀装置(zhi) (ATC)

ATC的(de)选择主(zhu)要考虑(lv)换刀(dao)时间(jian)与可靠(kao)性。过分强调换刀(dao)时间(jian)会使加工中心的(de)价格大幅(fu)度提高并使故障(zhang)率上升。据统计,加工中心的(de)故障(zhang)中约有50%与ATC有关,因此,在(zai)满足使用要求的(de)前(qian)提下,尽(jin)量选用可靠(kao)性高的(de)ATC,以降低故障(zhang)率和(he)整机成(cheng)本

(4)必要的附件(jian)、配套件(jian)

选型时,还应(ying)(ying)注意选用(yong)一些配(pei)(pei)套件(jian)及附件(jian),尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)(liang)避免(mian)因缺(que)少(shao)一个几(ji)万元就能(neng)购(gou)买的附件(jian)而影响卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心的正常运(yun)行(xing)(xing)。慎(shen)重选择刀(dao)柄和(he)刀(dao)具也是(shi)保证(zheng)卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心正常运(yun)行(xing)(xing)的关键,最佳(jia)的选择办(ban)法(fa)应(ying)(ying)是(shi)根据典型零件(jian)所需(xu)的品种和(he)数量(liang)(liang)来确(que)定,并在使用(yong)中陆续添置。在卧(wo)式(shi)加(jia)工中心的构(gou)成中,排屑装置、防护装置和(he)对刀(dao)装置 (如(ru)刀(dao)具预调仪)等均是(shi)必需(xu)的,对一些尽(jin)(jin)管不(bu)是(shi)必需(xu)的配(pei)(pei)套件(jian),但(dan)如(ru)果价格(ge)不(bu)高,对使用(yong)带来很多方便(bian),也应(ying)(ying)尽(jin)(jin)量(liang)(liang)选用(yong),如(ru)附件(jian)铣头、储刀(dao)料架、运(yun)刀(dao)具车(che)、装卸器等。

建(jian)议:配件(jian)越高,能(neng)实(shi)现的功(gong)能(neng)越多(duo),但价格也越贵,采购用(yong)户需(xu)要根据加工需(xu)求酌(zhuo)情选配。

7卧式加工中(zhong)心(xin)选型时还有什么其他需(xu)要(yao)注意的?——需(xu)要(yao)注意的一些问(wen)题(ti)

(1)结构(gou)设计(ji)

加工中心对(dui)其床身(shen)、立柱、工作台、主轴以及(ji)刀(dao)库等功(gong)能(neng)部件的(de)(de)结构(gou)设计有着很高的(de)(de)要(yao)求,以达到(dao)其高强度、高刚度、高抗振性和稳定性的(de)(de)目的(de)(de)。选(xuan)型时(shi),应特别注意把(ba)其结构(gou)作为一项重(zhong)要(yao)的(de)(de)具体内(nei)容来进行(xing)要(yao)求与考(kao)虑。

(2)功(gong)能与加工的(de)适(shi)应性

虽(sui)然加工(gong)(gong)中心可以进行钻、扩(kuo)、铣、镗、铰(jiao)、攻螺纹乃(nai)至(zhi)车削 (如车铣复合加工(gong)(gong)中心)等(deng)多种加工(gong)(gong),但是在具体(ti)选择(ze)时,还应根据(ju)具体(ti)需要来(lai)考虑(lv)机床(chuang)的功能与加工(gong)(gong)是否相(xiang)适(shi)应等(deng)问题(ti)。要注(zhu)意(yi)以下(xia)几点:

A、复杂(za)曲(qu)线加工(gong)时,要考(kao)虑(lv)CNC是否有(you)所需要的(de)(de)曲(qu)线插补功能(neng),或(huo)选择什么方式逼近加工(gong)曲(qu)线并(bing)保证所要求的(de)(de)表面粗糙度。三维加工(gong)时,要考(kao)虑(lv)选择适合的(de)(de)刀具结(jie)构(gou),还要考(kao)虑(lv)程序编(bian)制能(neng)力,如有(you)必要则必须配备自动(dong)编(bian)程装(zhuang)置或(huo)后(hou)置处理(li)编(bian)程装(zhuang)置。

B、需要(yao)进行螺(luo)纹切削(xue) (非攻螺(luo)纹方式)时,不仅要(yao)看是否(fou)有螺(luo)纹切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)、螺(luo)旋(xuan)线(xian)插补功(gong)能(neng)和(he)主轴(zhou)转(zhuan)动与(yu)进给同(tong)步(bu)功(gong)能(neng),还要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)机床(chuang)是否(fou)有径向进给装置、是否(fou)有主轴(zhou)在(zai)(zai)旋(xuan)转(zhuan)方向上任意角(jiao)度位(wei)置准确(que)定位(wei)功(gong)能(neng)。否(fou)则,仅在(zai)(zai)数控系统中用(yong)了(le)螺(luo)纹切削(xue)功(gong)能(neng)仍然无法进行螺(luo)纹切削(xue)C、采(cai)用(yong)金(jin)刚铰、浮动镗和(he)挤压(ya)加工等特种加工时,既要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)适宜(yi)的(de)自动换刀的(de)条件,又要(yao)考(kao)虑(lv)选择(ze)合适的(de)刀具(ju)结构和(he)切削(xue)用(yong)量,应(ying)尽可能(neng)在(zai)(zai)购买主机时一并购置部(bu)分易损部(bu)件及其(qi)他附件等。

D、如果(guo)有应用DNC、FMS、CIMS等(deng)的(de)规划,或(huo)要进行网络制造,则(ze)要注意通(tong)信(xin)功(gong)能,应选择具有RS—232、RS—485甚至MAP网络通(tong)信(xin)、CAN总线等(deng)接口的(de)系统。

(3)运转的可(ke)靠性

卧式加工中心运转的可靠性决定了其质量好坏。数控系统由于某一块插件板故障造成停机数月的现象屡见不鲜,一个传感器失效造成机床丧失部分功能的现象也多有发生。所以在选型过程中,应采取对老用户进行走访等方式,更多一些了解所选卧式加工中心的使用情况。

建(jian)议(yi):采(cai)购用户(hu)在(zai)选型时,需(xu)要(yao)对卧式加(jia)工中心整体的结构设计、可靠性以及价加(jia)工适应(ying)性有(you)客观的认(ren)识。


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