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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:lv27662000.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手由(you)主体、驱动(dong)(dong)系(xi)统和(he)控制系(xi)统三(san)个基本(ben)部分组(zu)成。按机(ji)(ji)器人结构(gou)分类为直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标(biao)型(xing),机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手沿(yan)二维直(zhi)角(jiao)坐标(biao)系(xi)移动(dong)(dong)。主体部分通常采(cai)(cai)用龙门式(shi)结构(gou),由(you)y向(xiang)(xiang)横梁(liang)与(yu)导轨(gui)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕、十(shi)(shi)字滑(hua)(hua)座、立柱、过渡连接板(ban)和(he)基座等部分组(zu)成,z向(xiang)(xiang)的直(zhi)线运动(dong)(dong)皆为交流伺服电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)通过蜗轮(lun)减(jian)速器驱动(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)与(yu)y向(xiang)(xiang)横梁(liang)、z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕上固定的齿条(tiao)作滚动(dong)(dong),驱动(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)沿(yan)导轨(gui)快速运动(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)部件(jian)为质量较轻的十(shi)(shi)字滑(hua)(hua)座和(he)z向(xiang)(xiang)滑(hua)(hua)枕,滑(hua)(hua)枕采(cai)(cai)用由(you)铝合金(jin)拉制的型(xing)材(cai)。横梁(liang)采(cai)(cai)用方钢型(xing)材(cai),在横梁(liang)上安装有导轨(gui)和(he)齿条(tiao),通过滚轮(lun)与(yu)导轨(gui)接触,整个机(ji)(ji)械(xie)手都悬(xuan)挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由于(yu)桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度(du)快,加速度(du)大,加减(jian)速时(shi)间短(duan)。当输(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)时(shi),惯量(liang)大,因此,伺(si)服(fu)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)要有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)和(he)制动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能力,支撑元(yuan)件(jian)(jian)(jian)也(ye)要有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)及强(qiang)度(du)。只有这样,才能使(shi)伺(si)服(fu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)满足桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)响(xiang)应(ying)、高(gao)刚度(du)及高(gao)精度(du)要求。在(zai)选择合适伺(si)服(fu)电(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下,根(gen)(gen)据物料(liao)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离和(he)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)(xing)节拍,计算出伺(si)服(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)和(he)轨迹(ji),对驱动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数(shu)进行(xing)(xing)(xing)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)根(gen)(gen)据接收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移(yi)、速度(du)指令(ling),经变(bian)化、放大并(bing)调整处理后(hou),传递给运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)单元(yuan),通过(guo)光纤(xian)传感(gan)器(qi)对运(yun)行(xing)(xing)(xing)状态进行(xing)(xing)(xing)实时(shi)检测,在(zai)高(gao)速搬运(yun)过(guo)程中,运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)部件(jian)(jian)(jian)在(zai)极短(duan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内到达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度(du),并(bing)能在(zai)高(gao)速行(xing)(xing)(xing)程中瞬间准停,通过(guo)高(gao)分辩率绝对式(shi)编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)算,控(kong)制机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)误差(cha)和(he)测量(liang)误差(cha)对运(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)精度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响(xiang)。由于(yu)被(bei)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)不同,质(zhi)量(liang)也(ye)不同,因此,桁(heng)架机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)有多种规格和(he)系列(lie)。在(zai)选择时(shi),根(gen)(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质(zhi)量(liang),加工的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍来选取。但(dan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手(shou)(shou)臂,夹(jia)持方式(shi),则(ze)根(gen)(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)工件(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及机(ji)(ji)(ji)床夹(jia)具(ju)定夹(jia)方式(shi)来设计(见图2)。

机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)能够借助可(ke)(ke)编(bian)程序来处理和执行任务(wu)。机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)主要由(you)手(shou)(shou)(shou)图 1 臂、回转装(zhuang)置、运(yun)动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)及驱动(dong)部(bu)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)组(zu)成(cheng)。通过对工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)外形或工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)上(shang)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)支撑点定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)。例(li)如(ru),在汽车(che)发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)柔性自动(dong)线物流输(shu)送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)会根据(ju)缸体、缸盖、曲轴等工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)外形特点,选取不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)方式(shi)。柔性机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)上(shang)采用气缸和电机(ji)(ji)进行定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)和夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)切(qie)换(huan)(huan)(huan)驱动(dong),一套(tao)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)可(ke)(ke)完(wan)成(cheng)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian)搬运(yun)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)可(ke)(ke)根据(ju)产品质量和外形的(de)(de)(de)(de)大小采用系列化设计(ji),机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)安装(zhuang)方式(shi)相(xiang)同(tong)(tong),针对不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)系列的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)需(xu)切(qie)换(huan)(huan)(huan)相(xiang)应的(de)(de)(de)(de)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)定(ding)(ding)(ding)位(wei)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)即(ji)可(ke)(ke),满(man)足快速切(qie)换(huan)(huan)(huan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)要。这样,当(dang)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)不(bu)(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)件(jian)(jian)(jian)(jian),只(zhi)须变换(huan)(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持(chi)(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)就可(ke)(ke)实现,提高了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自(zi)动线桁(heng)架机械手输(shu)送装置(zhi)的发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,经历(li)了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)两个时代。就目前而(er)(er)言, 在国内二者均有(you)之(zhi)。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)棘轮棘爪、摆杆、抬起(qi)步(bu)(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等形式(shi)。随着加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展,由其组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步(bu)(bu)(bu)替代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适(shi)应小批(pi)(pi)量多(duo)品(pin)种的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian),得到市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)广(guang)泛认可(ke),并称(cheng)其为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)种以(yi)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)带依然为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓(wei)是(shi)准(zhun)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又有(you)了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)形式(shi)以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手)并存(cun),或(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),即(ji)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系统(tong)全部(bu)由桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)系统(tong)也柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高速加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)配以(yi)桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song),又称(cheng)之(zhi)为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷制(zhi)造系统(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)后(hou)(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距可(ke)根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配置(zhi)(zhi)随意改(gai)(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之(zhi)间的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不(bu)(bu)再(zai)象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距或(huo)步(bu)(bu)(bu)距倍数(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)要求(qiu)进(jin)行(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)安(an)装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)速度也可(ke)根据(ju)生产节拍及输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离而(er)(er)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)。而(er)(er)真正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)重要一面是(shi),当被(bei)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)产品(pin)改(gai)(gai)变(bian)后(hou)(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不(bu)(bu)会不(bu)(bu)适(shi)应而(er)(er)全部(bu)更换,只(zhi)要改(gai)(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)程(cheng)序(xu)和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手局部(bu)结构即(ji)可(ke)。采用(yong)桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)更先进(jin)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)一面是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)协调统(tong)一。因(yin)此,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手才在当今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地被(bei)采用(yong),使整个生产过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信(xin)(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系统(tong)进(jin)行(xing)控制(zhi)。在加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),所需各种信(xin)(xin)息(xi)收集、处理、反馈(kui),并通过(guo)电子计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)其他(ta)控制(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等),对(dui)机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或(huo)运输(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)分(fen)(fen)级控制(zhi)。信(xin)(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系统(tong)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)央管(guan)理计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控制(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元(yuan)控制(zhi)计算机(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)控机(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以(yi)及信(xin)(xin)息(xi)传送(song)(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)(cheng)。目前,汽车制(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及曲(qu)轴等大(da)(da)批(pi)(pi)量关键零件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大(da)(da)都(dou)采用(yong)了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(见图(tu)3)。

2. 国内外的差距

当(dang)下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)很(hen)快,技术水(shui)平(ping)有了很(hen)大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距变得越来越小,甚至有些(xie)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)相比已经没(mei)有什么差(cha)距。特(te)别(bie)(bie)是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)重大(da)(da)科技专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展(zhan),为(wei)(wei)(wei)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水(shui)平(ping)提(ti)高了加(jia)(jia)速(su)度,成绩显(xian)而易见。加(jia)(jia)工中心机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这(zhei)几年发(fa)展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别(bie)(bie)快,但柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平(ping)和档次,较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距还很(hen)明显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)较(jiao)为(wei)(wei)(wei)普遍,而国(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为(wei)(wei)(wei)数(shu)不多(duo),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车生(sheng)产市场所采(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),大(da)(da)多(duo)从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)(wai)进口。如无锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体(ti)缸盖柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)由德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工中心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)在线(xian)检具(ju)、辅机(ji)(ji)及珩(heng)磨机(ji)(ji)组(zu)成。输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)采(cai)用空中桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手和机(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)。仅以汽车制造(zao)业而言(yan),国(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),采(cai)用桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)屈(qu)指可数(shu)。大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团和沈阳机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团等生(sheng)产出了该方面的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian),并(bing)在生(sheng)产实际中得到了应用。图4是(shi)大(da)(da)连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集(ji)团生(sheng)产的(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体(ti)加(jia)(jia)工柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工两种缸体(ti),分别(bie)(bie)为(wei)(wei)(wei)四缸和六缸,其输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)采(cai)用空中桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手和自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)两端为(wei)(wei)(wei)机(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道(dao)等形式。桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手两个,一个上(shang)料,一个下料。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)(de)成功,标志着我国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产由桁架机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)开(kai)始(shi)向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)准迈(mai)进。

上述提及的(de)(de)(de)只(zhi)是数量上的(de)(de)(de)比较,其实(shi)真正的(de)(de)(de)原因还是国(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)技术(shu)水平与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)有着一定的(de)(de)(de)差距。柔性加工自动线(xian)采用的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou),也是从国(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)。那时,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)还没有专(zhuan)门生产桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)厂家(jia)。如今,国(guo)(guo)内(nei)巨(ju)一等一些(xie)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)生产厂家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)产柔性加工自动线(xian)带来(lai)了希(xi)望,进而(er)缩(suo)小了与国(guo)(guo)外(wai)在生产桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)方面的(de)(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)产桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)在柔性加工自动线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)应用也越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)多(duo),从而(er)打(da)破国(guo)(guo)产市场被外(wai)国(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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